References: Benefits of Natural Marine Extract Ingredients

Arachidonic acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid and Docosahexaenoic acid: Improve all four phases of wound healing and rejuvenation.

Fredalina BD, Ridzwan BH, Zainal Abidin AA, Kaswandi MA, Zaiton H, Zali I, Kittakoop P, Jais AM. Fatty acid compositions in local sea cucumber, Stichopus chloronotus for wound healing. Gen. Pharmacol. 1999;33:337-340.

Yaacob HB, Kim KH, Shahimi MM, Jamalulail SMS. Water extract of Stichopus sp. 1 improves wound healing. J. Perubatan Univ. Kebangsaan Malays. 1994;16:19-29.

Menton DN, Eisen AZ. Cutaneous wound healing in the sea cucumber, Thyone briareus. J. Morphol. 1973;141:185-203.

Mehmet A, Hüseyin S, Bekir T, Yilmaz E, Sevim K. Proximate composition and fatty acid profile of three different fresh and dried commercial sea cucumbers from Turkey. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2011;46:500-508.

Tong Y, Zhang X, Tian F, Yi Y, Xu Q, Li L, Tong L, Lin L, Ding J. Philinopside A, a novel marine-derived compound possessing dual anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects. Int. J. Cancer. 2005;114:843-853.

Ubiquitin: Facilitates DNA transcriptions and repair, and ribosome biogenesis that benefits cellular function and rejuvenation. Improves immune response against many viruses and pathogens.

Goldstein G, Scheid M, Hammerling U, Schlesinger DH, Niall HD, Boyse EA (January 1975). "Isolation of a polypeptide that has lymphocyte-differentiating properties and is probably represented universally in living cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 72(1): 11-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.72.1.11. PMC 432229. PMID 1078892.

Hochstrasser M (March 2009). "Origin and function of ubiquitin-like proteins". Nature. 458 (7237): 422-9. doi:10.1038/nature07958. PMC 2819001. PMID 19325621.

Kimura Y, Tanaka K (June 2010). "Regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of ubiquitin homeostasis". Journal of Biochemistry. 147 (6): 793-8. doi:10.1093/jb/mvq044. PMID 20418328.

Triterpenoid glycoside saponin, Philinospide E and Lipopopy saccharide: Anti-inflammatory and free radical quencher.

Kerr R, Chen Z. In vivo and in vitro biosynthesis of saponins in sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) J. Nat. Prod. 1995;58:172-176.

Miyamoto T, Togawa K, Higuchi R, Komori T, Sasaki T. Constituents of Holothuroidea, II. Six newly identified biologically active triterpenoid glycoside sulfates from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1990:453-460. 1990.

Sun P, Liu BS, Yi YH, Li L, Gui M, Tang HF, Zhang DZ, Zhang SL. A new cytotoxic lanostane-type triterpene glycoside from the sea cucumber Holothuria impatiens. Chem. Biodivers. 2007;4:450-457.

Zou Z, Yi Y, Wu H, Wu J, Liaw C, Lee K. Intercedensides A-C, three new cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Mensamaria intercedens Lampert. J. Nat. Prod. 2003;66:1055-1060.

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate: Anti-inflammatory that quelches free radicals.

Collin PD. Tissue fraction of sea cucumber for the treatment of inflammation. 5,770,205. United State Patent. 1998 23 June;

Vieira RP, Mulloy B, Mourão PA. Structure of a fucose-branched chondroitin sulphate from sea cucumber. Evidence for the presence of 3-O-sulfo-β-D-glucuronosyl residues. J. Biol. Chem. 1991;266:13530-13536.

Tian F, Zhang X, Tong Y, Yi Y, Zhang S, Li L, Sun P, Lin L, Ding J. PE, a new sulfated saponin from sea cucumber, exhibits anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Biol. Ther. 2005;4:874-882.

Hemocyanin: Immune defense stimulator.  Improves all aspects of wound healing, especially the proliferative and remodeling phases.

Musselli, C., Livingston, P.O. & Ragupathi, G. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccines against cancer: The Memorial Sloan Kettering experience. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 127, R20-R26 (2001).

Antibody administration has been shown to eradicate tumor in experimental animals and in humans [6, 16, 18, 17, 42, 38, 31, 27, 47, 30, 19]. Here we review our experience in breaking tolerance to various tumor antigens by keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-conjugates in …

Calmodulin: Mediates inflammation and metabolism. Maximizes immune response. Important adjunct to wound healing

Stevens FC (August 1983). "Calmodulin: an introduction". Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 61 (8): 906-10. doi:10.1139/o83-115. PMID 6313166

Nucleoplasmin: facilitates the transport between cellular nuclei and its cytoplasm. Improves cellular function and health, important in cell division (such as wound healing).

Jun, SHUTe; Zhou, ZHANGYao (2007). "Nucleoplasmin, an Important Nuclear Chaperone". Chinese Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biol. 23 (9): 718-723.

Ferritin: Stores iron and improves mitochondrial function. Maximizes cellular function in mitosis (wound healing). Maximizes nutrient delivery, especially to healing processes

Langlois d'Estaintot B, Santambrogio P, Granier T, Gallois B, Chevalier JM, Précigoux G, Levi S, Arosio P (July 2004). "Crystal structure and biochemical properties of the human mitochondrial ferritin and its mutant Ser144Ala". Journal of Molecular Biology. 340 (2): 277-93. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.04.036. PMID 15201052

Cathepsin D: Activates growth factors, prohormones and proenzymes which are essential for cellular rejuvenation. The mechanism of action probably involves lengthening telomeres. Facilitates amino acids sequencing.

Glycosaminoglycan: Essential for regulation and proliferation of cell growth; key compound in all four phases of wound healing and cellular rejuvenation.

Nagase H, Enjyoji K, Minamiguchi K, Kitazato KT, Kitazato K, Saito H, Kato H. Depolymerized holothurian glycosaminoglycan with novel anticoagulant actions: Antithrombin III-and heparin cofactor II-independent inhibition of factor X activation by factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex and heparin cofactor II-dependent inhibition of thrombin. Blood. 1995;85:1527-1534.

Pacheco RG, Vicente CP, Zancan P, Mourão PAS. Different antithrombotic mechanisms among glycosaminoglycans revealed with a new fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from an echinoderm. Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis. 2000;11:563-573.

Funderburgh, JL. (2000). "Keratan sulfate: structure, biosynthesis, and function". Glycobiology. 10 (10): 951-8. doi:10.1093/glycob/10.10.951. PMID 11030741.

Sasisekharan, Ram; Raman, Rahul; Prabhakar, Vikas (August 2006). "Glycomics Approach to Structure-Function Relationships of Glycosaminoglycans". Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering. 8 (1): 181-231.

"glycosaminoglycan" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary

Caligur, Vicki (2008). "Glycosaminoglycan Sulfation and Signaling". Retrieved 25 November 2012.

Lectin: Mitogenic stimulation of lymphosytes to improve the immune system against infection, cancer and mobilization of healing wounds

Mojica ERE, Merca FE. Biological properties of lectin from sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra Jäger) J. Biol. Sci. 2005;5:472-477.

Glycosaminoglycan and Proteoglycan in Skin Aging
Dong Hun Lee et al. J Dermatol Sci. 2016 Sep
J Dermatol Sci
2016 Sep;83(3):174-81.
doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2016.05.016.Epub 2016 May 27.
Authors : Dong Hun Lee 1, Jang-Hee Oh 1, Jin Ho Chung 2

Bioactive Peptides: Anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidation; antimicrobial against viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens.

Collin PD. Peptides having anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity. 6,767,890. United State Patent. 2004 27 July;

Food Quality and Safety, Volume 1, Issue 1, 1 March 2017, Pages 29-46, Published: 12 April 2017

Beauregard KA, Truong NT, Zhang H, Lin W, Beck G. The detection and isolation of a novel antimicrobial peptide from the echinoderm, Cucumaria frondosa. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2001;484:55-62.

Methyltetradeconoic acid: Antimicrobial activity especially against viral and bacterial pathogens.

Lawrence AJ, Afifi R, Ahmed M, Khalifa S, Paget T. Bioactivity as an options value of sea cucumbers in the Egyptian Red Sea. Conserv. Biol. 2009;24:217-225.